About us
- Water pollution
- Biofouling
- Biofilm removal
- Phosphate removal
- Reverse osmosis
- Reservoir souring
- Bacterial contamination
- Arsenic

Reservoir souring

To face the growing demand for energy, the world is increasingly relying on deepwater drilling as a means of oil and gas production. During deepwater drilling, seawater is injected to maintain pressure in the reservoir of an oil field. This often results into reservoir souring, which means the development of significant amounts of highly poisonous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the fluid to extract.

Sulfate-reducing bacteria

Reservoir souring is triggered by sulfate-reducing bacteria that reside in the oil reservoir or that are brought into it by the injected seawater. These sulfate-reducing bacteria produce hydrogen sulfide by metabolizing sulfate, which is a major component of seawater. The development of H2S in an oil reservoir poses a safety hazard to the people working on offshore platforms. Therefore, regulations state that H2S levels of transported gas should not exceed a few ppm. To remove H2S before the transportation of sour gas, special equipment has to be installed on offshore platforms. Besides that, the hydrogen sulfide also causes corrosion of mild steel equipment that is used during oil and gas production.

H2S removal

To control reservoir souring, nanofiltration technology is often used to treat the injected seawater. However, the residual sulfate concentration in the seawater after filtration is usually enough to fuel the sulfate-reducing bacteria. An alternative solution is to dose calcium nitrate to stimulate nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) to metabolize all available carbon in the oil well, thus outcompeting sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). However, the results of this technique are often unpredictable. Furthermore, calcium nitrate is known to increase scaling of the equipment.

Prevent reservoir souring with BiAqua PRT™

BiAqua PRT™ approaches the souring problem in offshore oil reservoirs from a completely different angle. Our phosphate adsorbent materials are a cost-effective method to pretreat seawater before it is injected into the oil reservoir. With BiAqua PRT™ as pretreatment, phosphate levels in the injection water are reduced to < 1 ppb. Without this vital nutrient, the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria is severely inhibited, thus limiting the production of hydrogen sulfide.

Contact us for more information about BiAqua PRT™ with regards to your specific needs.


2 28-05-2015 Vacancy: Process Field Engineer


2 20-08-2014 BiAqua featured in Water Desalination Report.

2 13-08-2014 BiAqua appoints OrangeBoat as technology ambassador.

2 13-06-2014 BiAqua’s founding father awarded the 2014 NWO Spinoza prize

2 23-05-2014 BiAqua’s first pilot-test results gain recognition at the EDS conference Cyprus

2 6-11-2013 BiAqua’s technology preventing biofouling in pilot at WLN

2 29-10-2013 BiAqua’s solution against biofouling and phosphate contamination will be launched at Aquatech 2013

2 29-10-2013 BiAqua technology proves able to guarantee 10x delay in biofouling appearance when applied to RO membranes pretreatment

2 14-10-2013 BiAqua will be present at Aquatech 2013

2 30-9-2013 BiAqua and Eucodis bioscience scale up enzyme production

2 6-9-2013 BiAqua and WLN form partnership to develop PRT technology

2 13-9-2012 BiAqua in Artemis top 50!

2 1-7-2012 Visit BiAqua at the SIWW'2012

2 7-05-12 BiAqua presents at DSM Webinar on outsourcing development for industry ingredients

2 29-03-12 BiAqua founding father wins Lee Kuan Yew Water prize

2 15-03-11 Biaqua Ferritin validated for its adsorption capacity to remove > 99.95% of 32P (i.e. < 1 ppb)

2 31-08-09 Icos Capital invests in TU Delft water spin-off

5 31-08-09 Icos Capital investeert in watervinding TU Delft